Evaluate Employee Selection and Training on Capacity
OLB 7002, Assignment 3
DuBose, Justin Z.
Dr. Michael J. Kranzusch
27 August 2017
The subjects of employee selection and employee training as they pertain to and affect organizational capacity and productivity should be at the heart of every organization concerned with increasing the caliber of their workforce. As the caliber of the individual worker increases, so does the entire organization. This directly impacts tangible qualities such as profit and production, but it also, and arguably more importantly, impacts certain intangible qualities such as workplace culture and employee satisfaction. Consequently, these subjects are paramount to all organizations.
Research has demonstrated the many benefits of employee selection and employee training and their profoundly positive or negative effects on organizational capacity and productivity. One major effect of employee selection and training shows up in the culture of the workplace in which those employees work. Robert Richman, author of “The Culture Blueprint” and former manager and cultural strategist for Zappos.com, stated that, “Culture is infectious, and whether positive or negative, it will spread” (PR Newswire, 2016). This issue is magnified in light of the fact that 72% of global executives in a recent survey agreed that “culture is extremely important to organizational performance”. However, just 32% of those same executives said their current culture “aligned with their business strategy” (PR Newswire, 2016).
Workplace and organizational culture are directly linked to the people within the organization, thus making the selection and training of these employees an extremely high priority to organizational leaders. Michael Segovia, a lead facilitator for the MBTI Certification program at CPP, highlighted this truth when he said, “Regardless of the technology that evolves around us in the workplace, successful working environments will always require collaboration between individuals, and thus, personalities will remain a key factor in achieving streamlined business value for any organization” (PR Newswire, 2015). By examining employee selection and training, an organization can ensure to a high degree that the personalities which are influencing their working environments are helping to achieve their organizational values and goals, rather than function in opposition to them.
Once these employees are selected, businesses and organizations must focus on the necessary and appropriate training to further encourage and cultivate those desired attributes which contribute to organizational capacity and productivity. One way to achieve this objective is through the practice of “organizational learning” (Vargas, 2015), which is a process that not only optimizes an innovative environment and workplace culture, but also promotes high performance. This optimization of innovation and promotion of high employee performance has been proven to enhance performance and give organizations a sustainable competitive advantage (Baker & Sinkula, 2002). Studies have also affirmed that to gain and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage, it must begin and end with the selection and training of employees; employees must be viewed as valuable assets rather than “cogs in the wheel” (Risher, 2013).
Furthermore, research has concluded that institutionalizing “organizational learning” in the form of self-assessment and reflection yields positive results in employee productivity (Gerras & Wong, 2016). This is true, in part, because institutional organizational learning can translate to employee productivity, which is “self-directed and future-focused behavior” and which “aims to bring about change” (Parker & Wang, 2015). Thus, employee training becomes an institutional practice in which proactivity is fostered and, consequently, organizational capacity and productivity increase.
Interpretation of Research Findings
It is clear that organizations must invest in their employees if the desire to see their bottom line positively impacted is to be realized. Until and unless employees are seen as the most valuable asset and the worthiest investment of time and resources, organizational capacity and productivity will never increase. This is accomplished first through proper employee selection and subsequently through training.
It is inarguable that employee selection is incredibly important for organizations of any size. Those employees selected will not only integrate into the workforce where their personality and character traits will influence workplace environment and culture (PR Newswire, 2015), but they also will matriculate into management positions, which arguably have the greatest influence in the workplace (Risher, 2013). Employee selection has not only an immediate but a future impact as well.
Employee training is also an area of great concern for organizational leaders as the training will either work for or against leaders as they pursue their organizational goals. Google, routinely listed as one of the greatest places to work, has shifted their focus and resources on employee training and has seen incredible results in their organizational capacity and productivity (Risher, 2013). Similarly, the New South Wales Public Hospitals in Australia have recently instituted leadership develop training for their nurses and have seen a noticeable increase in capacity and productivity (Daly, 2015). In different sectors and across various geographies, studies have firmly concluded that employee training, if conducted effectively, can have a marked impact on organizations.
Plan of Action for Columbus Christian Academy
One of our major issues in the past at Columbus Christian Academy is that virtually no foresight or organizational planning went into employee selection. Our selection process has always been, until recently, reactive instead of proactive; we have always sought to fill vacancies out of time necessities rather than out of a diligent, planned selection process. This has been true both of faculty positions as well as volunteer positions, such as school board members and parent/teacher committees.
In light of the aforementioned studies and research findings, our plan of action in employee selection needs to be focused on those key attributes which will positively and noticeably impact organizational culture and capacity. For example, the issue of individual personalities plays a huge role in determining workplace culture (PR Newswire, 2015). Rather than simply evaluating professional credentials and qualifications in the hiring process, careful consideration must also be given to personality traits as these may impact the workplace more deeply than professional qualifications. While several tools exist for evaluating personality type and factors, the “Big Five” have an effective research foundation which prove that they are valuable not only in employee selection but in leader development as well (Gerras & Wong, 2016). This “Big Five” assessment (which measures openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) will be given to all potential employees and will provide a more focused and strategic element to the employee selection process. This is the first step in targeting an increase in present and future capacity and productivity.
This “Big Five” assessment will also become a part of annual employee training to continually develop self-awareness and increase positive workplace interaction. As our focus shifts to developing a regular and calculated employee training program, our aim will be the professional development of our people in ways that facilitate innovation (Risher, 2013), proactivity (Parker & Wang, 2015), and the ability to create and pursue individual goals that line up with organizational values. In pursuing this objective in training, the goal is to see not only an increase in employee satisfaction, but also, and consequently, an increase in capacity and productivity. Furthermore, those employees who are selected based upon a combination of professional qualifications and personality factors will immediately be thrust into a workplace environment where those same qualifications and factors are encouraged, valued, and developed by their peers and supervisors.
This training will also center around the three motivations of “can do”, “reason to”, and “energized to” (Parker & Wang, 2015). The innovation, proactivity, and goal creation and pursuit of employees will all be filtered through the motivations of that which they can accomplish, believe in accomplishing, and are energized by pursuing. In this way, the goals they are creating are goals of their own choosing but which further organizational capacity and productivity, and which also serve to increase their happiness and satisfaction as employees of the organization. For example, if an employee has ambitions to be a supervisor or administrator, they would be encouraged to create goals which would help them achieve this ambition within the organization. This encourages innovation and proactivity on their part, and this can be cultivated through annual training and support from those within the organization. The pursuit and realization of these goals increases the capacity and productivity of the individual as well as the organization. It is our hope that the institutionalization of such practices and procedures produces a noticeable and positive change in employee engagement and fulfillment, workplace culture, and organizational capacity and productivity.
Baker, W. & Sinkula, J. (2002). “Market orientation, learning orientation and product innovation: delving into the organization’s black box”. Journal of Market-Focused Management, 5, 5-23. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
Daly, J., Jackson, D., Rumsey, M., Patterson, K., & Davidson, P.M. (2015). “Building Nursing Leadership Capacity: An Australian Snapshot”. Nurse Leader, October 2015, 36-39. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
Discover the new MBTI(R) comparison report: Work styles. (2015, Apr 29). PR Newswire Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/1676429531?accountid=28180
Gerras, S.J. & Wong, L. (2016). “Moving Beyond the MBTI: The Big Five and Leader Development”. Military Review, March-April 2016, 54-57. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
MBTI(R) professionals take on leading business priority: Workplace culture. (2016, Jun 30). PR Newswire Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/1800517094?accountid=28180
Parker, S.K. & Wang, Y. (2015). “Helping people to ‘make things happen’: A framework for proactivity at work”. International Coaching Psychology Review, 10(1), 62-75. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
Risher, H. (2013). “Investing in Managers to Improve Performance”. Compensation & Benefits Review, 45(6), 324-328. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
Vargas, M.I.R. (2015). “Determinant Factors for Small Business to Achieve Innovation, High Performance and Competitiveness: Organizational Learning and Leadership Style”. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 169, 43-52. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
Research Theories and Methods for the Implementation of Capacity Planning
OLB 7002, Assignment 2
DuBose, Justin Z.
Dr. Michael J. Kranzusch
20 August 2017
This paper is an analysis of the usefulness and effectiveness of SWOT analysis on capacity planning for organizations. Various theories and methodologies are discussed as well as their translating into organizational process goals.
These theories and methodologies are then applied to the organization of Columbus Christian Academy in Whiteville, North Carolina. Organizational strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats are discussed and the feasibility of immediate adjustments being made. The paper concludes with a SWOT analysis of current capabilities and aligning these capabilities to future organizational goals.
Theories and Methods of Capacity Planning
Every organization has a consistently pressing need to self-evaluate for the sake of efficiency and effectiveness. Regardless of any particular field of which the organization is included, this need to conduct both internal investigations and external comparisons will never dissipate due to the nature of competition in the business and not-for-profit sector. Therefore, organizations must constantly conduct what is known as “capacity planning” to evaluate their current capacity while considering present and future goals. In doing so, current resources can be aligned to meet organizational goals and organization efficiency can be greatly enhanced in the process.
While there exist multiple theories of capacity planning, the goal for each planning process is the same: increased efficiency and better alignment of resources to meet future goals. Nested within organizational capacity planning is the implementation of a SWOT analysis. A SWOT analysis is commonly used to examine an organization’s “Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats” (Brooks, 2014). As Brooks noted, “SWOT can be helpful and useful in setting short-term and long-terms goals and aligning organizational resources to aim at these goals” (Brooks, 2014).
A SWOT analysis encompasses both internal (Strengths and Weaknesses) as well as external (Opportunities and Threats) analysis and reveals much about the current standing of the organization (Coman & Ronen, 2009). Multiple theories exist of how to analyze each of elements. The Five Forces Model of Competition (Porter, 1991) evaluates industry trends and external threats in the form of competition. The Driving Forces Model (Thompson, et al, 2012) looks at the external forces which are driving the industry and bringing about industry-wide change. Each of these are effective and provide substantive theory and methodology for conducting a SWOT analysis.
How SWOT Improves Capacity
In conducting a GAP analysis for Columbus Christian Academy, certain key organizational strengths and weaknesses emerged. It was discovered, for example, that from the capacity dimension of human resources and organizational resources (Bourgeois, 2014), our Academy is operating at a very healthy capacity level. Our staff-to-student ratio of 1:12, our current campus size of 30 acres, and our operating budget of approximately $500,000 are all signs of healthy organizational capacity. However, it was in our areas of learning benefits and evaluation planning (Bourgeois, 2014) that we discovered the greatest gaps. This was evidently primarily in our organizational areas of faculty certification, continuing education, and staff evaluations. Each of these areas were identified as weaknesses. No initial examination was undertaken of external factors.
Establishing Capacity Goals
In just examining Strengths and Weaknesses of Columbus Christian Academy, it was determined that faculty evaluations and broader course offerings were an area in which organizational capacity could see immediate improvement. Furthermore, a SWOT analysis reinforced the need for broader course offerings as other area schools were increasingly offering a broader selection of course offerings to students. This lack of a wide selection of course offerings was also a reason multiple school families cited for leaving Columbus Christian Academy in exit interviews. Therefore, a strategic decision was made “based on both a thorough analysis and the integration of various internal and external considerations” to immediately address this organizational weakness and threat (Blackwell, 2014).
As for the other areas of faculty certification and continuing education, it was determined through the GAP and SWOT analysis that, while these were areas identified as weaknesses and threats, they required more resources to be immediately addressed than were presently available. However, in planning organizational process goals, it was concluded that these areas would strategically be addressed over a longer period of time. As SWOT analysis is designed to create both short and long-term organizations goals and recommendations (Brooks, 2014), these particular weaknesses were identified as long-term process goals to increase organizational capacity.
SWOT Analysis for Columbus Christian Academy
20 August 2017
1. Our current staff-to-student ratio of 1:12 is the lowest ratio in the county.
2. Our 30-acre campus is the largest physical campus in the county.
3. As a private school, we have greater flexibility over curriculum and course offerings than any other school.
1. Our current percentage of certified faculty (10%) is the lowest in the county.
2. Limited course offerings
3. We currently have no institutional faculty evaluation process.
1. Our athletic program has tremendous potential with good coaches and resources and should be invested in.
2. Our policy manual and employee handbook can be revised to align with organizational goals and vision.
3. The implementation of an institutional faculty evaluation process will encourage professional development.
1. Area schools with 100% certified faculty threaten our enrollment due to academic concerns.
2. Our limited course offerings limit the types of students attracted to our school.
3. Our large 30 acre campus creates additional security concerns and makes us more vulnerable to attacks.
Blackwell, R. & Eppler, D. (2014). " An Approach to Strategic Situation Analysis: Using Models as Analytical Tools ". The Journal of Global Business Management, 10(1), 80-86. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
Bourgeois, I., Whynot, J., & Theriault, E. (2015). "Application of an organizational evaluation capacity self-assessment instrument to different organizations: Similarities and lessons learned". Evaluation and Program Planning, 50(1), 47-55. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
Brooks, G., Heffner, A., & Henderson, D. (2014). “A SWOT Analysis Of Competitive Knowledge From Social Media For A Small Start-Up Business”. Review of Business Information Systems, 18(1), 23-34. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
Coman, A., & Ronen, B. (2009). “Focused SWOT: Diagnosing critical strengths and weaknesses”. International Journal of Production Research, 47(20), 5677-5689.
Porter, M. E. (1991). “Towards a dynamic theory of strategy”. Strategic Management Journal, 12, 95-117.
Thompson, A. A., Peteraf, M. A., Gamble, J. E., & Strickland, A. J. (2012). Crafting and executing strategy: The quest for competitive advantage. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Present the State of Capacity in your Organization
OLB 7002, Assignment 1
DuBose, Justin Z.
Dr. Michael J. Kranzusch
13 August 2017
Present the State of Capacity in your Organization
My name is Justin DuBose and I am currently a Ph.D. student at Northcentral University. I am pursuing a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Organizational Leadership. Within the scope of this program I am studying the aspect of building organizational capacity within my present organization. Presently, I am pastoring a church and overseeing every ministry of the church. Within that oversight is the administration of a private, Christian school which encompasses a pre-kindergarten program through high school. This single product encompasses more than two-thirds of our annual budget and an even greater percentage of weekly facility use. However, it is also both a known opportunity for organizational growth as well as the primary suspect of organizational deficiency. Therefore, this presentation of the current state of capacity within my organization is based on the belief that Columbus Christian Academy merits further study and improvement.
Explanation of Organization’s Capacity
Currently, Columbus Christian Academy serves approximately 175 students from grades pre-k through 12th grade with a full-time staff of approximately 15. The current operating budget of the organization is approximately $500,000 which is managed by an appointed school board of 6 individuals. The campus encompasses 30 acres of land which includes an education building, a gymnasium, and several athletic ballfields. From the capacity dimension of human resources and organizational resources (Bourgeois, 2014), our Academy is operating at a very healthy capacity level. Our staff-to-student ratio is 1:12 and our current campus allows us plenty of room to grow. However, it is in our areas of learning benefits and evaluation planning (Bourgeois, 2014) that we discover the greatest gaps.
Explanation of Organization’s Future Capacity
In our gap analysis below, we discover that Columbus Christian Academy’s future capacity will be much higher as we improve in the areas of faculty certification, continuing education, and staff evaluations. Additionally, the area of institutional accreditation and course offerings offer us a higher future capacity than present capacity. To achieve the best practices as an organization (United States Department of Health & Human Services, 2017), several commitments will be required by the organizational leadership over a multi-year period. These commitments include additional funding, a commitment to obtaining state certification for faculty, hiring additional staff, and creating and implementing a formalized institutional process for annual evaluations for all employees. While many gap analyses target organizational areas such as significant cost savings (Gyulai, 2014), our gap analysis sees potential capacity in these areas of planning and professionalism as the greatest potential for growth and improvement.
Providing Concrete Examples
Consider, for example, the fact that only ten percent of our present faculty hold a current state certification in their field. To achieve the best practice, every faculty member will be required to obtain a current state certification in their field. This will require, on the part of the leadership, a commitment to the process as well as allocating of funds for that purpose. One author looked at organizational capacity in terms of developing capacity at the “individual, organizational, and industry levels” (Gill, 2015). State certification for each faculty member would improve our capacity at each of these levels. Furthermore, the obtaining of individual state certifications would also increase our future capacity in achieving accreditation from a national accrediting agency. Creating and implementing a process for annual staff evaluations would also be a requirement of obtaining and maintaining accreditation, which is a best practice for increasing future organizational capacity.
As funds are allocated for faculty and staff professional development, money would also be allocated for additional staffing for an expanded academic and elective menu for students. Our organizational capacity would grow exponentially if we could offer greater academic courses as well as a broader selection of electives. Each of these areas would require a significant commitment from the organizational leadership over a multi-year period, but such a commitment would result in dramatically increased organizational capacity than is not presently available in the current structure.
Below is a gap analysis for Columbus Christian Academy using the aforementioned examples of increasing future organizational capacity from present levels. Much of the information obtained in constructing this analysis was taken from an article written by Elliott Taylor in the Small Business Chronicle (Taylor, 2017). The following gap analysis examines best practices, strategies for implementing those practices, current practices and how they differ from the best practice, the barriers to implementing the best practices, and the likelihood of the best practices being implemented throughout the organization.
Gap Analysis for Columbus Christian Academy
13 August 2017
Best Practice Strategies
How Current Practices Differ
Barriers to implementation
Will Best Practice Be Implemented?
Every faculty member obtains state certification
Only ten percent of faculty holds a state certification
Educational and time commitments; school cannot afford to pay for certification
Yes – will require a multi-year commitment and funding
School is independently accredited with ASCI
School is not currently accredited
All teachers must be certified; fees must be paid; time must be allotted for evaluations and interviews
No – not until all faculty obtain state certification
Broader course offerings
Greater academic offerings for high school and expanded elective options
Minimum academic offerings for graduation with limited electives
Need more staff; need more specialized faculty; need more funding for creating positions and courses
Yes - will require multi-year commitment to staffing and funding
Continuing staff education
Every staff member attends at least one continuing education offering annually
No continuing education is available to staff
Time for attendance; money to pay for training for all staff
No – staff will be pursuing certification before any other education
Annual faculty evaluations
Every faculty member is evaluated annually
No institutionalized process for evaluations
Must implement a formalized process, timeline, and necessary forms
Yes - will require creating and implement a formalized process, timeline, and necessary forms
Bourgeois, I., Whynot, J., & Theriault, E. (2015). "Application of an organizational evaluation capacity self-assessment instrument to different organizations: Similarities and lessons learned". Evaluation and Program Planning, 50(1), 47-55. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
Gill, A. (2015). “Strategic Capacity Planning Process in Construction Business”. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 17(4), 95-104. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
Gyulai, D. (2014). “Capacity Planning and Resource Allocation in Assembly Systems Consisting of Dedicated and Reconfigurable Lines”. Procedia CIRP, 25(1), 185-191. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
Taylor, Elliott. “How to Write a Gap Analysis Report.” Small Business Chronicle, 2017, smallbusiness.chron.com/write-gap-analysis-report-55720.html.
United States Department of Health & Human Services. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2017). AHRQ Quality Indicators Toolkit: Tool D.5 (Gap Analysis), 25(1), 185-191. Retrieved August 13, 2017 from URL: https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/professionals/systems/hospital/qitoolkit/d5-gapanalysis.pdf
NG, LR, & NCU
My collection of personal papers written over the years